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*1 Categorical barsp59601/text/103/notes/ ¢ I. The Components of Categorical Propositions*

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Categorical Propositions Four Statements about the World

PHI 103 - Categorical Logic Lecture 1

I. The Components of Categorical Propositions -

A. Subject Term - first category or class B. Predicate Term - second category or class

Categorical Logic The Categorical Propositions

Categorical Proposition: any statement which relates two classes or categories of entities.

Cats are mammals

Opossums are marsupials.

Astronomical objects do not have fur.

subject predicate

subject predicate

subject predicate

I. The Components of Categorical Propositions -

A. Subject Term - first category or class B. Predicate Term - second category or class

C. Copula - the grammatical link (verb) between subject and predicate terms.

Categorical Logic The Categorical Propositions

Cats are mammals

subject predicate

copula

Opossums are marsupials.

subject predicate copula

Astronomical objects do not have fur.

subject predicate copula

Categorical Logic The Categorical Propositions

D. Quantifiers - words that specify the quantity of the subject and predicate terms.

1. Universal -

a. affirmative - ‘all’ (includes all of a class) b. negative - ‘no’ (excludes all of a class)

2. Particular - ‘some’ (includes part of a class)

I. The Components of Categorical Propositions -

A. Subject Term - first category or class B. Predicate Term - second category or class

C. Copula - the grammatical link (verb) between subject and predicate terms.

Four Standard Forms of Categorical Propositions

All members of the Subject class are members of the Predicate class.

None of the members of the Subject class are members of the Predicate class.

At least one member of the Subject class is a member of the Predicate class.

At least one member of the Subject class is not a member of the Predicate class.

All S are P.

No S are P.

Some S are P.

Some S are not P.

Universal Affirmative

All S are P. Every member of the subject class is also a member of the

predicate class.

Subject Predicate

All S are P. Every member of the subject class is also a member of the

predicate class.

Subject Predicate

Universal Affirmative

No S are P. No members of the subject class are members of the

predicate class.

Subject Predicate

Universal Negative

No S are P. No members of the subject class are members of the

predicate class.

Subject Predicate

Universal Negative

Some S are P. At least one members of the subject class is also a member

of the predicate class.

Subject Predicate

Particular Affirmative

Some S are P. At least one members of the subject class is also a member

of the predicate class.

Subject Predicate

x

Particular Affirmative

Some S are not P. At least one members of the subject class is not a member

of the predicate class.

Subject Predicate

Particular Negative

Some S are not P. At least one members of the subject class is not a member

of the predicate class.

Subject Predicate

x

Particular Negative

Proposition Symbol Quantity Quality

All S are P.

No S are P.

Some S are P.

Some S are not P.

A E

I

O

universal

universal

particular

particular

affirmative

affirmative

negative

negative

Distribution of Terms

A term in a categorical proposition is said to be distributed when it makes an assertion about every

member of a class.

Proposition Distributed Term

subject

subject and predicate

none

predicate

All S are P.A -

No S are P. E -

Some S are P.I -

Some S are not P.O -

Subject Predicate

Universal Affirmative

All S are P.A -

The whole subject class is part of the predicate class.

E - No S are P.

Subject Predicate

Universal Negative

No members of the subject class are members of the predicate class.

I - Some S are P.

Subject Predicate

x

Particular Affirmative

We are talking about neither all of, nor none of, either class.

O - Some S are not P.

Subject Predicate

x

Particular Negative

The whole predicate class is excluded from the subject.